Standard Propagation Model (SPM) Formula Mobile Networks - Free Job Alert

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Tuesday 19 December 2023

Standard Propagation Model (SPM) Formula Mobile Networks

 Standard Propagation Model (SPM) Formula Mobile Networks

The Standard Propagation Model is a propagation model based on the Hata formulas and is suited for predictions in the 150 to 3500 MHz band over long distances (from one to 20 km).

 It is best suited to GSM 900/1800, UMTS, CDMA2000, WiMAX, Wi‐Fi, and LTE radio technologies.

SPM Formula-

Standard Propagation Model (SPM) Formula
 Standard Propagation Model (SPM) Formula


The Standard Propagation Model, often referred to as the Free-Space Path Loss (FSPL) model, is a fundamental concept in wireless communication and radio frequency (RF) engineering. This model describes the attenuation or loss of signal strength as electromagnetic waves travel through free space without any obstacles or obstructions. Here's a short information

 on the Standard Propagation Model:

Standard Propagation Model (Free-Space Path Loss):

The Standard Propagation Model, also known as Free-Space Path Loss (FSPL), serves as a foundational framework for understanding how radio signals weaken as they propagate through open space. This model is particularly relevant in wireless communication systems, including radio, satellite, and microwave links.


Key Features:

  1. Inversely Proportional Relationship: The Free-Space Path Loss follows an inverse square law, indicating that the power density of an electromagnetic wave diminishes with the square of the distance from the source. The formula for FSPL is given by:

FSPL (dB)=20log10​(d)+20log10​(f)+20log10​(4π/c​)


    • d is the distance between the transmitter and receiver.
    • f is the frequency of the signal.
    • c is the speed of light.
  1. Frequency Dependency: The FSPL model accounts for the influence of frequency on signal propagation. Higher frequencies generally experience more significant path loss than lower frequencies.
  2. Omnidirectional Propagation: The model assumes isotropic antennas, meaning antennas that radiate energy equally in all directions. In practice, antennas may have directional characteristics, and additional factors like antenna gain are considered for more accurate modeling.
  3. No Obstructions: FSPL assumes an idealized scenario with no obstacles or interference, making it suitable for predicting the loss in an open-air environment.     


  • Wireless Communication Planning: Engineers use the Standard Propagation Model in the initial stages of designing wireless communication networks. It helps estimate the coverage area, signal strength, and link budget for communication links.
  • Satellite Communication: FSPL is applicable to satellite communication systems where signals traverse large distances through space.
  • Microwave Links: In point-to-point microwave links, understanding path loss is crucial for designing reliable communication links between distant locations.


  • FSPL does not consider environmental factors like terrain, buildings, or atmospheric conditions, which can significantly affect signal propagation in real-world scenarios.
  • The model assumes a vacuum, neglecting the effects of atmospheric absorption.

In summary, the Standard Propagation Model provides a simplified yet valuable tool for estimating signal attenuation in free-space conditions. While it forms the basis of many initial calculations, more complex propagation models incorporating environmental factors are often used for detailed and realistic analysis in practical applications.

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